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Date Printed: June 28, 2017: 11:57 PM

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This medical policy (medical coverage guideline) is Copyright 2017, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF). All Rights Reserved. You may not copy or use this document or disclose its contents without the express written permission of BCBSF. The medical codes referenced in this document may be proprietary and owned by others. BCBSF makes no claim of ownership of such codes. Our use of such codes in this document is for explanation and guidance and should not be construed as a license for their use by you. Before utilizing the codes, please be sure that to the extent required, you have secured any appropriate licenses for such use. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) is copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. No fee schedules, basic units, relative values, or related listings are included in CPT. The AMA assumes no liability for the data contained herein. Applicable FARS/DFARS restrictions apply to government use. CPT® is a trademark of the American Medical Association. The use of specific product names is illustrative only. It is not intended to be a recommendation of one product over another, and is not intended to represent a complete listing of all products available.

09-E0000-54

Original Effective Date: 04/15/02

Reviewed: 12/06/12

Revised: 11/01/15

Subject: Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation

THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE IS NOT AN AUTHORIZATION, CERTIFICATION, EXPLANATION OF BENEFITS, OR A GUARANTEE OF PAYMENT, NOR DOES IT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR CONSTITUTE MEDICAL ADVICE. ALL MEDICAL DECISIONS ARE SOLELY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PATIENT AND PHYSICIAN. BENEFITS ARE DETERMINED BY THE GROUP CONTRACT, MEMBER BENEFIT BOOKLET, AND/OR INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER CERTIFICATE IN EFFECT AT THE TIME SERVICES WERE RENDERED. THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE APPLIES TO ALL LINES OF BUSINESS UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED IN THE PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS SECTION.

Position Statement Billing/Coding Reimbursement Program Exceptions Definitions Related Guidelines
Other References Updates  

DESCRIPTION:

Functional neuromuscular stimulation is designed to stimulates muscles and thus restore the function of the extremity. Functional neuromuscular stimulation attempts to replace stimuli from destroyed nerve pathways with sequential electrical stimulation of muscles to enable spinal cord injured patients to stand or walk independently or to maintain muscle tone and strength and gait training in post-stroke or multiple sclerosis patients. Electrodes are placed; implanted, transcutaneously, or percutaneously. A stimulator unit worn externally produces the pulses. The pulses are delivered via the skin surface or via implanted electrodes. Electrical impulses are delivered that stimulate the nerves to produce muscle contractions of paralyzed muscles or injured nerves.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved several functional electrical stimulation devices (e.g., Parastep┬« Ambulation System, WalkAide, Bioness L300™, FES Motorized CycleErgometer).

POSITION STATEMENT:

NOTE: For neuromuscular electrical stimulation, refer to Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, 09-E0000-25. For diaphragmatic-phrenic nerve stimulation, refer to Diaphragmatic-Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (i.e., Electrophrenic Pacemaker), 02-61000-33.

Functional neuromuscular stimulation (including the functional electrical stimulation devices) is considered investigational as a technique to restore function following nerve damage or nerve injury for the following, but is not limited to the following:

The evidence in the peer-reviewed medical literature for functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation (including the functional electrical stimulation devices) is limited by small patient populations and data demonstrating clinical utility outside of the research setting. Large randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are required to determine impact on health outcomes.

BILLING/CODING INFORMATION:

There are no specific CPT or HCPCS codes that describe specific functional neuromuscular stimulation devices. The following HCPCS code may be used to describe functional neuromuscular stimulation.

There is no specific CPT or HCPCS codes that describe functional neuromuscular stimulation and functional neuromuscular stimulation devices for specific conditions (e.g., post stroke, multiple sclerosis).

HCPCS Coding:

E0764

Functional neuromuscular stimulation, transcutaneous stimulation of sequential muscle groups of ambulation with computer control, used for walking by spinal cord injured, entire system, after completion of training program (investigational).

E0770

Functional electrical stimulator, transcutaneous stimulation of nerve and/or muscle groups, any type, complete system, not otherwise specified

REIMBURSEMENT INFORMATION:

Refer to sections entitled POSITION STATEMENT and PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS.

PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS:

Federal Employee Program (FEP): Follow FEP guidelines.

State Account Organization (SAO): Follow SAO guidelines.

Medicare Advantage products:

The following Local Coverage Determination (LCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Therapy and Rehabilitation Services (L29289), located at fcso.com.

DEFINITIONS:

No guideline specific definitions apply.

RELATED GUIDELINES:

Diaphragmatic-Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (i.e., Electrophrenic Pacemaker), 02-61000-33
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulator (NMES), 09-E0000-25

OTHER:

Other names used to report functional neuromuscular stimulation:

Electrical Stimulation
Functional Electrical Stimulation
Neuromuscular Stimulation

REFERENCES:

  1. Alon G, McBride K, Ring H. Improving selected hand functions using a noninvasive neuroprosthesis in persons with chronic stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cardiovascular Diseases 2002; 11(2): 99-106.
  2. Barrett CL, Mann GE, Taylor PN et al. A randomized trial to investigate the effects of functional electrical stimulation and therapeutic exercise on walking performance for people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2009 Apr; 15(4): 493-504.
  3. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Medical Policy Reference Manual. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation to Provide Ambulation 8.03.01, 02/09/12.
  4. Brissot R, Gallien P, Le Bot MP et al. Clinical experience with functional electrical stimulation-assisted gait with Parastep in spinal cord-injured patients. Spine 2000; 25(4): 501-508.
  5. Daly JJ, Roenigk K, Holcomb J, Rogers JM, Butler K, Gansen J, McCabe J, Fredrickson E, Marsolais EB, Ruff RL. A randomized controlled trial of functional neuromuscular stimulation in chronic stroke subjects. Stroke. 2006 Jan; 37(1): 172-8.
  6. ECRI Health Technology Assessment Information Services. Custom Hotline Response. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) for Mobility and Motor Function following Spinal Cord Injury. Updated 01/16/06.
  7. First Coast Service Options, Inc. LCD for Therapy and Rehabilitation Services (L29289), 10/01/12.
  8. Hausdorff JM, Ring H. Effects of a new radio frequency-controlled neuroprosthesis on gait symmetry and rhythmicity in patients with chronic hemiparesis. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2008; 87(1): 4-13.
  9. Hayes, Inc. Hayes Search & Summary. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Post-Stroke. Lansdale, PA: Hayes, Inc.; September 2007.
  10. Hayes, Inc. Hayes Medical Technology Directory. Functional Electrical Stimulation for Rehabilitation of Paralyzed Lower Limbs, PA: Hayes, Inc.; May 2003. Update performed, 03/24/08.
  11. Kottink AI, Hermens HJ, Nene AV et al. Therapeutic effect of an implantable peroneal nerve stimulator in subjects with chronic stroke and footdrop: A randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy 2008; 88(4): 437-448.
  12. Laufer Y, Hausdorff JM, Ring H. Effects of a foot drop neuroprosthesis on functional abilities, social participation, and gait velocity. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2009; 88(1): 14-20.
  13. Medicare National Coverage Determination Manual Chapter 1, Part 2 Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulator (NMES) 160.12, 10/01/06.
  14. National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NHS) Functional Electrical Stimulation for Drop Foot of Central Neurological Origin, January 2009.
  15. Robbins SM, Houghton PE, Woodbury MG et al. The therapeutic effect of functional and transcutaneous electric stimulation on improving gait speed in stroke patients: a meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006 Jun; 87(6): 853-859.
  16. Sheffler LR, Hennessey MT, Knutson JS et al. Neuroprosthetic effect of peroneal nerve stimulation in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009; 90(2):362-365.
  17. Snoek GJ, IJzerman MJ, Groen FACG in’t et al. Use of the NESS handmaster to restore handfunction in tetraplegia: clinical experiences in ten patients. Spinal Cord 2000; 38(4): 244-249.
  18. Southwestern Allied Health Sciences School, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas-Department of Physical Therapy Mobility research and Assessment Lab.
  19. Yan T, Hui-Chan CW, Li LS. Functional electrical stimulation improves motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking ability of subjects with first acute stroke. Stroke 2005; 36; 80-85.

COMMITTEE APPROVAL:

This Medical Coverage Guideline (MCG) was approved by the BCBSF Medical Policy & Coverage Committee on 12/06/12.

GUIDELINE UPDATE INFORMATION:

04/15/02

New Medical Coverage Guideline.

04/15/03

Reviewed; Program Exception added for Medicare & More.

04/15/04

Review and revision of guideline; consisting of updated references and no change in coverage statement.

01/15/05

Review and revision of guideline; consisting of updated references.

01/01/06

Review and revision of guideline; consisting of updated references. Annual HCPCS coding update: consisting of the deletion of K0600 and the addition of E0764.

11/15/06

Review and revision of guideline consisting of updated references.

07/15/07

Review and revision of guideline consisting of updated references and reformatted guideline.

11/15/08

Review and revision of guideline consisting of updated references.

01/01/09

Annual HCPCS coding update: revised descriptor for code E0764.

01/15/10

Annual review; updated position statement (added restore muscular function and other conditions and indications). Updated Medicare Advantage products program exception. Updated references.

12/15/10

Annual review: Revised descriptor. Revised position statement to include upper extremity function in patients with nerve damage (e.g., spinal cord injury, post stroke) and to improve ambulation in patients with foot drop caused by nerve damage (e.g., post-stroke, multiple sclerosis). Reformatted Medicare Advantage program exception. Updated references.

01/15/13

Annual review; no change to position statement. Added Medical Coverage Guideline reference and link for Diaphragmatic-Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (i.e., Electrophrenic Pacemaker), 02-61000-33 and updated references.

03/15/13

Code update; added E0770.

05/11/14

Revision: Program Exceptions section updated.

11/01/15

Revision: ICD-9 Codes deleted.

Date Printed: June 28, 2017: 11:57 PM