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Date Printed: August 18, 2017: 10:23 AM

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This medical policy (medical coverage guideline) is Copyright 2017, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF). All Rights Reserved. You may not copy or use this document or disclose its contents without the express written permission of BCBSF. The medical codes referenced in this document may be proprietary and owned by others. BCBSF makes no claim of ownership of such codes. Our use of such codes in this document is for explanation and guidance and should not be construed as a license for their use by you. Before utilizing the codes, please be sure that to the extent required, you have secured any appropriate licenses for such use. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) is copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. No fee schedules, basic units, relative values, or related listings are included in CPT. The AMA assumes no liability for the data contained herein. Applicable FARS/DFARS restrictions apply to government use. CPT® is a trademark of the American Medical Association. The use of specific product names is illustrative only. It is not intended to be a recommendation of one product over another, and is not intended to represent a complete listing of all products available.

09-E0000-22

Original Effective Date: 06/15/00

Reviewed: 04/28/16

Revised: 05/15/16

Subject: Non-Invasive Electrical Bone Growth Stimulators (EBGS)

THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE IS NOT AN AUTHORIZATION, CERTIFICATION, EXPLANATION OF BENEFITS, OR A GUARANTEE OF PAYMENT, NOR DOES IT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR CONSTITUTE MEDICAL ADVICE. ALL MEDICAL DECISIONS ARE SOLELY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PATIENT AND PHYSICIAN. BENEFITS ARE DETERMINED BY THE GROUP CONTRACT, MEMBER BENEFIT BOOKLET, AND/OR INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER CERTIFICATE IN EFFECT AT THE TIME SERVICES WERE RENDERED. THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE APPLIES TO ALL LINES OF BUSINESS UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED IN THE PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS SECTION.

           
Position Statement Billing/Coding Reimbursement Program Exceptions Definitions Related Guidelines
           
Other References Updates  
           

DESCRIPTION:

An electrical bone growth stimulator is a device that provides electrical stimulation to augment bone repair. A noninvasive electrical stimulator is characterized by an external power source which is attached to a coil or electrodes placed on the skin, or on a cast or brace over a fracture or fusion site. Noninvasive electrical bone growth stimulators generate a weak electrical current within the target site using pulsed electromagnetic fields, capacitive coupling, or combined magnetic fields. In capacitive coupling, small skin pads/electrodes are placed on either side of the fusion site and worn for 24 hours per day until healing occurs, or up to 9 months. In contrast, pulsed electromagnetic fields are delivered via treatment coils that are placed over the skin and are worn for 6 to 8 hours per day for 3 to 6 months. Combined magnetic fields deliver a time-varying magnetic field by superimposing the time-varying magnetic field onto an additional static magnetic field. This device involves a 30-minute treatment per day for 9 months.

POSITION STATEMENT:

Noninvasive electrical bone growth stimulation (EGBS) with an FDA-approved device meets the definition of medical necessity for the following:

Non-Spinal

Fracture non-union or congenital pseudoarthrosis, when ALL of the following are met:

At least 3 months have passed since the date of fracture

Serial radiographs (a minimum of 2 sets of radiographs, each including multiple views of the fracture site, separated by a minimum of 90 days) have confirmed that no progressive signs of healing have occurred; AND

The fracture gap is 1cm or less; AND

The member can be adequately immobilized; AND

The member is able to comply with non-weight bearing for fractures of the pelvis and lower extremities

Spinal

As an adjunct to spinal fusion surgery, for those at high risk for fusion failure, defined as any of the following:

• One or more previously failed fusion(s)

• Grade III or worse spondylolisthesis

• Fusion performed at more than one level

• Diabetes

• Renal disease

Alcoholism

Steroid use

• Current tobacco use

Noninvasive electrical bone growth stimulation meets the definition of medical necessity as a treatment of members with failed lumbar spinal fusion (Failed spinal fusion is defined as a spinal fusion that has not healed at a minimum of 6 months after the original surgery, as evidenced by serial x-rays over a course of 3 months).

Non-invasive electrical bone growth stimulation is considered experimental or investigational for the following, as the scientific evidence does not permit conclusions on long-term and net health outcomes:

Immediate post-surgical treatment

Stress fractures

Treatment of fresh fractures

Arthrodesis (spinal) in the absence of high risk factors

As a stand-alone non-surgical salvage of failed spinal arthrodesis

BILLING/CODING INFORMATION:

CPT Coding:

20974

Electrical stimulation to aid bone healing; noninvasive (non-operative)

HCPCS Coding:

E0747

Osteogenic stimulator, electrical, non-invasive, other than spinal applications (e.g., Physio-Stim)

E0748

Osteogenic stimulator, electrical, non-invasive, spinal applications (e.g., Spinal-Stim)

LOINC Codes:

The following information may be required documentation to support medical necessity: Physician history and physical, physician treatment notes, treatment plan, radiology and surgical reports.

Documentation Table

LOINC Codes

LOINC
Time Frame
Modifier Code

LOINC Time Frame Modifier Codes Narrative

Physician history and physical

28626-0,

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Attending physician visit note or treatment notes

18733-6

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Treatment plan

18776-5

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Radiology study reports

18726-0

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Physician operative note (surgical report)

28573-4

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

REIMBURSEMENT INFORMATION:

Refer to section entitled POSITION STATEMENT.

PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS:

Federal Employee Program (FEP): Follow FEP guidelines.

State Account Organization (SAO): Follow SAO guidelines.

Medicare Advantage products:

The following National Coverage Determination (NCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Osteogenetic Stimulation; Electrical Osteogenic (150.2) Stimulators located at cms.gov.

The following Local Coverage Determination (LCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Osteogenic Stimulation (L33928) located at fcso.com.

The following Durable Medical Equipment Regional Carrier (DMERC) Local Coverage Determination (LCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Osteogenesis Stimulators (L33928) located at cgsmedicare.com.

DEFINITIONS:

Arthrodesis: surgical fixation of the joint by a procedure designed to cause fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the generation of bone cells.

Congenital: present at birth; not acquired.

Delayed union: a fracture that exhibits a decelerating healing process as determined by serial x-rays, together with a lack of clinical and radiologic evidence of union, bony continuity, or bone reaction at the fracture site for no less than 3 months from the index injury or the most recent intervention.

Fresh fracture: most commonly defined as “fresh” for 7 days after the fracture occurs, most heal without complications with the use of standard fracture care (e.g., closed reduction and cast immobilization).

Nonunion: fracture site shows no visible progressive signs of healing after 3 months or more, as confirmed by serial radiographs (i.e., bone healing has ceased).

Pseudoarthrosis (pseudarthrosis): a pathologic entity characterized by the loss or reduction of mineral elements of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal callus, leading to the existence of the “false joint” that gives the condition its name.

Spondylolisthesis: forward displacement of one vertebra over another, usually of the fifth lumbar over the body of the sacrum, or of the fourth lumbar over the fifth, usually due to a developmental defect.

RELATED GUIDELINES:

Invasive Electrical Bone Growth Stimulator (EBGS), 02-20000-22
Ultrasound Osteogenesis Stimulators, 09-E0000-32

OTHER:

Other names used to report non-invasive electrical bone growth stimulators (EBGS):

Note: The use of specific product names is illustrative only. It is not intended to be a recommendation of one product over another, and is not intended to represent a complete listing of all products available.

Orthofix Spinal-Stim®

REFERENCES:

  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Technology Assessment: The Role of Bone Growth Stimulating Devices and Orthobiologics in Healing Nonunion Fractures (09/21/05). Accessed 02/20/15.
  2. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). OrthoInfo. Nonunions. March 2014. Accessed at http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00374.
  3. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Medical Policy 7.01.07. Electrical Bone Growth Stimulation of the Appendicular Skeleton, December 2014.
  4. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Medical Policy 7.01.85 Electrical Stimulation of the Spine as an Adjunct to Spinal Fusion Procedures, October 2014.
  5. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association TEC Assessments – 1992 (p. 324 – 351), 1993 (p. 1 – 12 and 332 – 351).
  6. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association TEC Evaluations (1993, Tab 7).
  7. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services National Coverage Determination (NCD) for Osteogenic Stimulators (150.2), 8/1/2005.
  8. First Coast Service Options, Inc. Local Coverage Determination (LCD): Osteogenic Stimulation (L33928), 10/01/2015.
  9. Foley KT, Mroz TE, Arnold PM, et al. Randomized, prospective, and controlled clinical trial of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation for cervical fusion. Spine J. 2008; 8(3):436-442.
  10. Harper WL, Schmidt WK, Kubat NJ et al. An open-abel pilot study of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome pain. International Medical Case Reports Journal 2014; 31(8): 13-22.
  11. InterQual® 2014. CP: Durable Medical Equipment. Bone Growth Stimulators, Noninvasive.
  12. Kaiser MG, Eck JC, Groff MW et al. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 17: Bone growth stimulators as an adjunct for lumbar fusion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 2014; 21(1): 133-139.
  13. Medicare Jurisdiction J-C CGS Administrators, LLC 18003-DME MAC: Local Coverage Determination (LCD): Osteogenesis Stimulators (L33796), 10/01/2015.
  14. Mollon B, da Silva V, Busse JW, et al. Electrical stimulation for long-bone fracture-healing: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90(11):2322-2330.
  15. Morone MA, Feuer H. The use of electrical stimulation to enhance spinal fusion. Neurosurgery Focus 2002; 13(6): Article 5.
  16. Shi HF, Xiong J, Chen YX et al. Early application of pulsed electromagnetic field in the treatment of postoperative delayed union of long-bone fractures: a prospective randomized controlled study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013; 14:35.
  17. Simmons JW, Mooney V, Thacker I. Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields. American Journal of Orthopedics 2004; 33(1): 27-30.
  18. U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Guidance Document for Industry and CDRH Staff for the Preparation of Investigational Device Exemptions and Pre-market Approval Applications for Bone Growth Stimulator Devices.

COMMITTEE APPROVAL:

This Medical Coverage Guideline (MCG) was approved by the BCBSF Medical Policy & Coverage Committee on 04/28/16.

GUIDELINE UPDATE INFORMATION:

06/15/00

New Medical Coverage Guideline.

08/23/01

MCG reviewed – no changes.

03/15/03

MCG reviewed – no changes.

03/15/04

Reviewed; no change in coverage statement.

03/15/05

Scheduled review; added: “delayed union after 90 days” as a covered indication; added ICD-9 diagnosis codes and definitions.

03/15/06

Scheduled review; no change in coverage statement; correction made to ICD-9 diagnosis code 996.44; added congenital pseudoarthrosis (ICD-9 755.8) as a covered indication.

08/15/07

Review, coverage statement maintained, guideline reformatted, references updated.

03/15/09

Scheduled review; position statement unchanged; references updated.

11/15/09

Revision of Position Statement to include additional risk factors.

10/15/10

Revision; related ICD-10 codes added; formatting changes.

03/15/11

Scheduled review; position statement unchanged; references updated.

09/15/11

Revision; formatting changes.

05/11/14

Revision: Program Exceptions section updated.

04/15/15

Scheduled review. Revised description, position statement, and definitions. Updated references and reformatted guideline.

05/15/16

Reviewed; Added headers to position statement: “non-spinal” and “spinal”. Added position statement for noninvasive electrical bone growth stimulation as a treatment for failed lumbar spinal fusion. Deleted “or failed arthrodesis” from arthrodesis experimental or investigational. Added “(spinal) in the absence of high risk factors to arthrodesis experimental or investigational. Added “as a stand-alone non-surgical salvage or failed spinal arthrodesis to experimental or investigational. Updated program exceptions. Added Orthrofix Spinal-Stim® to other section. Updated references.

Date Printed: August 18, 2017: 10:23 AM