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01-95828-01

Original Effective Date: 12/31/00

Reviewed: 12/01/16

Revised: 12/15/16

Subject: Sleep Testing

THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE IS NOT AN AUTHORIZATION, CERTIFICATION, EXPLANATION OF BENEFITS, OR A GUARANTEE OF PAYMENT, NOR DOES IT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR CONSTITUTE MEDICAL ADVICE. ALL MEDICAL DECISIONS ARE SOLELY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PATIENT AND PHYSICIAN. BENEFITS ARE DETERMINED BY THE GROUP CONTRACT, MEMBER BENEFIT BOOKLET, AND/OR INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER CERTIFICATE IN EFFECT AT THE TIME SERVICES WERE RENDERED. THIS MEDICAL COVERAGE GUIDELINE APPLIES TO ALL LINES OF BUSINESS UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED IN THE PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS SECTIOn.

           
Position Statement Billing/Coding Reimbursement Program Exceptions Definitions Related Guidelines
           
Other References Updates    
           

DESCRIPTION:

Sleep studies and polysomnography (PSG) refer to the continuous and simultaneous monitoring and recording of various physiological and pathophysiological parameters of sleep for 6 or more hours with physician review, interpretation, and report. Sleep studies are performed to diagnose sleep disorders, and to determine the effectiveness of treatments prescribed for patients who have been previously diagnosed with sleep disorders. Evaluation of signs and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing should be conducted as part of routine health evaluations.

Attended Sleep Study - Polysomnography (PSG): Polysomnography is performed overnight, in a sleep laboratory facility. The member is continuously monitored by a trained sleep technologist who directly observes the member during the test. Parameters measured, at a minimum, are frontal, central and occipital lead of electroencephalogram (EEG), a submental electromyogram (EMG) and a left and right electrooculogram (EOG) to allow sleep staging, extremity muscle and motor activity (EMG), as well as respiratory indicators such as ventilation, respiratory effort and pulse oximetry. Monitoring may include additional EEG or EMG channels, capnography or esophageal manometry, if clinically indicated. The member is directly monitored throughout the sleep test, with continuous video and audio recording.

Split Night Sleep Study: A split night sleep study is a sleep study that combines an initial diagnostic PSG followed by the therapeutic initiation of PAP therapy within a single sleep study.

Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): MSLT is facility-based test used to objectively measure the ability or tendency to fall asleep during the member’s typical hours of wakefulness. This test is used to diagnose narcolepsy with or without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time, when other comorbid sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, have been evaluated and effectively treated and symptoms of excessive sleepiness persist.

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT): The MWT is a validated objective measure of the ability to stay awake for a defined time and is used in association with the clinical history to assess the ability to maintain wakefulness. The MWT is a facility-based test used to determine the ability to maintain wakefulness as an assessment of treatment of a previously diagnosed sleep disorder.

Home Sleep Apnea Test (HSAT): HSAT is an unattended sleep study administered using a portable monitoring device that measures physiologic indicators of respiratory activity during sleep, unattended, in a setting outside of the sleep center facility for adult members, age 18 years or older. The HSAT is the preferred method to diagnose obstructive sleep (OSA) apnea when OSA is suspected and there are no comorbid conditions, which would degrade the accuracy of HSAT.

Titration Studies for Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Therapy: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea using PAP therapy requires that PAP pressure be titrated to the appropriate settings to achieve optimal therapeutic benefit. PAP pressure settings can be determined through an attended overnight, facility-based titration study, or through use of auto-titrating PAP (APAP) device, which automatically adjusts pressure based on the member’s physiological response during use outside of the sleep laboratory.

POSITION STATEMENT:

NOTE: Preauthorization (also known as prior authorization, prior approval or precertification) may be required for sleep testing under certain contracts.

NOTE: In addition to the evidence-based medical necessity criteria listed below, criteria based on recent comparative effectiveness studies will be applied for the site of service determination during the preauthorization process.

Signs and Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing

Initial testing for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing is appropriate via laboratory polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep apnea testing (HSAT), if a member presents with at least one sign/symptom from category A and one sign/symptom from category B:

A. Evidence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

Disturbed or restless sleep

Non restorative sleep

Frequent unexplained arousals from sleep

Fragmented sleep

Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) greater than or equal to 10

Fatigue.

B. Evidence suggestive of Sleep Disordered Breathing

Disruptive Snoring

Witnessed apnea during sleep

Choking or gasping during sleep

BMI greater than or equal to 30

Neck circumference greater than 17 in. (men) or greater than 16 in. (women).

Determining The Appropriate Site of Service for Sleep Testing

Sleep testing may be performed in an attended setting in a laboratory facility OR outside of the sleep laboratory using a portable monitoring device. Selection of the appropriate site of service for sleep testing requires evaluation of ALL of the following:

1. Medical necessity to perform sleep testing

Evaluation of the member’s clinical signs and symptoms related to the sleep disorder, including review of the member’s medical history and physical examination

2. Evaluation of any comorbid medical conditions

3. Evaluation of any secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders AND

4. Assessment of the member’s cognitive and physical ability to safely and effectively perform the sleep test outside of the sleep laboratory.

Attended Sleep Study - Polysomnography (PSG)

A facility-based PSG (95808, 95810) meets the definition of medical necessity when a member presents with (A&B, A&C, or A&D):

A. Signs/symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (1 & 2)

1. Evidence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness- At least one of the following:

Disturbed or restless sleep

Non-restorative sleep

Frequent unexplained arousals from sleep

Fragmented sleep

Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) greater than or equal to 10 OR

Fatigue.

2. Evidence Suggestive of Sleep Disordered Breathing- At least one of the following:

Disruptive snoring

Witnessed apneas during sleep

Choking or gasping during sleep

BMI greater than or equal to 30 OR

Neck circumference greater than 17 inches (men) or greater than 16 inches (women).

B. Comorbid medical conditions, which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

C. Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders, which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal, when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated, as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour.

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

D. Recent HSAT (less than 90 days old) confirmed to be non-diagnostic:

A previous home sleep study was technically inadequate. (Of note: there is no minimum required HSAT recording time required for HSAT to be considered diagnostic), or

A previous home sleep study failed to establish the diagnosis of OSA in a member with a high pretest probability of OSA.

Full Night, Attended PAP Titration Study

Note: In-Facility Polysomnography Positive Airway Pressure (PAP)Titration for adult members (age 18 years or older) (CPT code 95811) is appropriate after an initial diagnostic sleep study (PSG or HSAT) has confirmed the presence of significant obstructive sleep apnea and the member is not appropriate for unattended titration using auto-titrating PAP (APAP or auto bi-level PAP) device.

A full night, attended PAP titration study (95811) meets the definition of medical necessity when the following conditions are met (A &B, A&C, or A&D):

A. Member has been previously diagnosed with significant obstructive sleep apnea:

1. Results of a PSG or HSAT indicate AHI or RDI or REI measured on HSAT greater than or equal to 15 events per hour, OR

2. AHI or RDI or REI measured on HSAT greater than or greater than or equal to 5 events per hour but less than 15 with clinical evidence of one of the following conditions:

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Impaired cognition

Mood disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety)

Insomnia

Hypertension

Ischemic heart disease

History of stroke.

B. Results of the initial diagnostic PSG or HSAT indicate significant oxygen desaturations during the study:

O2 saturation <90% for greater than 30% of recording time during a diagnostic home sleep apnea test or diagnostic facility based PSG, OR

O2 saturation < 80% for greater than 1% of recording time during a diagnostic home sleep apnea test or diagnostic facility based PSG.

C. Presence of a comorbid condition or concomitant secondary sleep disorder that could impact the technical quality or sensitivity of the APAP in adjusting pressure to meet member’s needs:

1. Comorbid medical conditions which would degrade APAP, such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

2. Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

D. The member has failed recent APAP trial at home.

APAP failure is defined as:

The member has a residual AHI on APAP download of greater than or equal to 5 with adequate objective adherence to therapy (70% use for 4 or more hours per night during a 30 day period reported on APAP download), or

The member has residual symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness with adequate objective adherence to therapy (70% use for 4 or more hours per night during a 30 day period reported on APAP download), or

The member is not a candidate for auto bi-level therapy or auto bi-level therapy has been tried and has not been effective.

Split Night Sleep Study

A facility-based split night sleep study (95811) meets the definition of medical necessity when a member presents with (A&B or A&C):

A. Signs/symptoms of sleep disordered breathing:

1. Evidence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness- At least one of the following:

Disturbed or restless sleep

Non-restorative sleep

Frequent unexplained arousals from sleep

Fragmented sleep

Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) greater than or equal to 10 (ESS)

Fatigue.

2. Evidence Suggestive of Sleep Disordered Breathing- At least one of the following:

Disruptive snoring

Witnessed apneas during sleep

Choking or gasping during sleep

BMI greater than or equal to 30

Neck circumference greater than 17 inches (men) or greater than 16 inches (women).

B. Presence of a comorbid condition OR concomitant secondary sleep disorder:

Comorbid medical conditions which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour.

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

C. Recent HSAT (less than 90 days old) confirmed to be non-diagnostic

A previous home sleep study was technically inadequate (Of note: there is no minimum required HSAT recording time for HSAT to be considered diagnostic), or

A previous home sleep study failed to establish the diagnosis of OSA in a member with a high pretest probability of OSA.

Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)

A Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) (95805) meets the definition of medical necessity when the following criteria are met (A&B):

A. Member exhibits documented symptoms of narcolepsy (1&2):

1. Excessive daytime sleepiness and at least one of the following:

Epworth Sleepiness Scale greater than or equal to 10

Recent history of routine unintentional naps or lapses into sleep during the day for more than 30 days.

2. Other recurrent symptoms of narcolepsy and one or more of the following:

Cataplexy (sudden and transient loss of muscle tone, often triggered by emotions such as laughing or crying)

Sleep paralysis

Hypnagogic hallucinations

Vivid dreams.

B. If the member is known to have OSA, the member has residual unexplained symptoms of narcolepsy despite documented objective adherence to OSA therapy, defined as 70% use for 4 or more hours per night during a 30-day period reported on PAP download

Note: The MSLT should be performed when a member is in a fully rested state, and not experiencing sleepiness due to inadequate prior sleep. For this reason, the MSLT is performed during the member’s typical wake hours and always follows a facility-based PSG, (95810) during which the member’s sleep adequacy is objectively measured. The MSLT should not be performed after a split night study (CPT code 95811). To assure the accuracy of the MSLT, sufficient sleep and the member’s sleep-wake cycles must be documented prior to the MSLT. Sufficient sleep may be evaluated by the use of sleep logs (paper or electronic format) or actigraphy (CPT code 95803). Sleep data is typically collected for at least 7 days.

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT)

Maintenance of Wakefulness testing (95805) meets the definition of medical necessity to evaluate a member’s response to treatment for a sleep disorder, such as obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy or periodic limb movement disorder, especially when the member’s inability to say awake constitutes a personal or public safety issue.

Note: Only an MWT (not MSLT) may be performed without a preceding PSG, at the discretion of the ordering healthcare professional.

MWT testing does not meet the definition of medical necessity when required exclusively for employment, insurance or government license purposes (CDL) assessment.

Actigraphy

Actigraphy (95803) meets the definition of medical necessity as a one-time covered service in lieu of paper or electronic sleep logs to evaluate sufficient sleep and to assess sleep-wake schedules prior to MSLT testing.

Note: It is recommended that actigraphy be performed for at least 7 days to assure the validity of MSLT testing data.

Actigraphy alone does not meet the definition of medical necessity in evaluating a member for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea,

Sleep Testing in Pediatric Members

(Younger than age 18 years)

Sleep disordered breathing in pediatric members younger than age 18 years is evaluated when there is the presence of one or more of the following:

Snoring

Labored, paradoxical, or obstructed breathing during the child’s sleep

Sleepiness, hyperactivity, behavioral problems, or learning problems.

In-Facility Polysomnography (PSG) or PAP Titration - Pediatric

Pediatric in-facility polysomnography (PSG) (95782, 95808, 95810) meets the definition of medical necessity for ANY of the following indications:

Obstructive sleep apnea is suspected based on clinical signs/symptoms

Prior to adenotonsillectomy to treat obstructive sleep apnea or snoring

Following adenotonsillectomy in a child with mild preoperative obstructive sleep apnea with residual symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea or snoring

Following adenotonsillectomy to assess for residual obstructive sleep apnea in child with preoperative evidence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, craniofacial anomalies that obstruct the upper airway, or neurologic disorder (e.g., Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, myelomeningocele)

Suspected congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome or sleep related hypoventilation due to neuromuscular disorders or chest wall deformities

Primary apnea of infancy

Evidence of a sleep related breathing disorder in infant who has experienced a brief resolved unexplained event

Assessment of response to treatment with an oral appliance

Evaluation of child treated with mechanical ventilation for adjustment of ventilator settings.

Evaluation prior to decannulation in child treated with tracheostomy

Clinical suspicion of an accompanying sleep related breathing disorder in a child with chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or chest wall abnormality (e.g., kyphoscoliosis).

Pediatric in-facility PAP titration (95783, 95811) meets the definition of medical necessity when the following are met (A&B or A&C, or A&D):

A. The pediatric member is diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, defined as (1 or 2):

1. AHI or RDI greater than or equal to 1 on polysomnography

2. A pattern of obstructive hypoventilation, defined as at least 25% of total sleep time with hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than or equal to 50 mm Hg) in association with one or more of the following:

Snoring

Flattening of the inspiratory nasal pressure waveform

Paradoxical thoracoabdominal motion.

B. PAP therapy is the desired treatment

C. Follow-up for child on chronic PAP support, to determine whether pressure requirements have changed due to growth and development; if symptoms recur while on PAP

D. Adenotonsillectomy has been unsuccessful, contraindicated, not considered appropriate, or when definitive surgery is indicated but must await complete dental and facial development in a pediatric member who is found to have obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis established by PSG.

Note: PAP titration may also be undertaken in a child with other sleep-related breathing disorders (not obstructive sleep apnea) when treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is recommended.

Home Sleep Apnea Test (HSAT)

An initial HSAT meets the definition of medical necessity when all of the following conditions are met (A,B,C,&D):

A. Signs/symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing are present

B. Absence of other comorbid medical conditions or concomitant sleep disorders that could degrade the accuracy of HSAT:

Comorbid medical conditions which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders which would degrade HSAT, such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour.

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

C. Cognitive and physical ability to safely and effectively perform the sleep test outside of the sleep laboratory

D. Age 18 years or older.

Note: An HSAT (95800, 95801, 95806, G0398, G0399, G0400) may be administered over multiple nights, at the discretion of the ordering qualified healthcare professional. The results should be aggregated into one single report. This is considered one diagnostic sleep test and multiple HSAT tests should be reported as a single HSAT procedure.

HSAT does not meet the definition of medical necessity to monitor PAP efficacy in a member already diagnosed with OSA and using PAP therapy. The PAP download should provide sufficient efficacy and usage data.

Portable monitoring devices used in HSAT are categorized based on the number of channels measured. Portable monitoring devices that measure fewer than 3 channels provide only limited information and therefore does not meet the definition of medical necessity.

Sleep testing (PSG or HSAT) does not meet the definition of medical necessity for:

members with insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders or restless leg syndrome (RLS)

screening asymptomatic members who have no sleep-related complaints

members who have symptoms of snoring only

members required to be tested by an employer or other government or regulatory agency and who have no symptoms of excessive daytime somnolence or other signs/symptoms of OSA.

Overnight oximetry testing does not meet the definition of medical necessity for OSA screening or as a diagnostic test for members suspected of obstructive sleep apnea.

Repeat Diagnostic Sleep Studies

A repeat PSG or HSAT for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders meets the definition of medical necessity when at least ONE of the following conditions is met:

1. Initial testing results are inconclusive due to poor technical administration:

If the initial test was a HSAT (less than 90 days old), and the results were inconclusive or negative, and there is still a high pre-test probability of obstructive sleep apnea, the repeat test may be performed as an in-laboratory polysomnogram.

2. Member has had a significant change in weight that has impacted signs/symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, specifically weight gain or weight loss of greater than or equal to 10% of total body weight, when re-evaluation is warranted to modify therapy.

3. Reassessment of clinical indicators of obstructive sleep apnea to determine the effectiveness of treatment after surgical intervention:

Tonsillectomy,

Adenoidectomy,

Uvulopalatoplasty (UPPP),

Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery (MMA)

Other upper airway surgery.

4. Implementation and evaluation of a fabricated oral mandibular advancement appliance (OAT) by a qualified healthcare professional:

a. Treatment efficacy of an oral mandibular appliance may be assessed using HSAT, OR

b. An oral mandibular appliance may be adjusted manually during polysomnography to eliminate sleep disordered breathing in the sleep laboratory by a sleep technologist, and as prescribed by the qualified healthcare professional.

The qualified healthcare professional may request in-facility polysomnography (95810) for manual adjustment of the appliance, if medically necessary

Alternatively, the oral appliance may be adjusted in the office empirically and then HSAT may be performed to assess therapeutic efficacy.

Note: PAP titration study (CPT code 95811) or split night sleep testing (95811) is not correct coding for adjustment of an oral mandibular appliance.

Therapies used to treat snoring only, without diagnosed OSA do not meet the definition of medical necessity.

PAP Re-Titration

A repeat in-lab PAP titration (95811) meets the definition of medical necessity for a member who is known to have OSA when (1&2):

1. A diagnostic sleep test has been submitted to confirm the diagnosis of OSA AND

The member is documented to have a recurrence of OSA-related symptoms, such as snoring, excessive daytime somnolence, fatigue, disrupted sleep, etc. and has been documented in clinical notes or PAP download to be adherent to PAP therapy (at least 70% use for 4 or more hours per night over 30 days), OR

The member has a 10% change in body weight which has resulted in a recurrence of OSA-related symptoms, OR

The member has upper airway surgery, which has resulted in a recurrence of OSA-related symptoms.

2. The member is not a candidate for APAP based on the presence of co-morbid medical conditions or concomitant sleep disorders, which would degrade APAP efficacy:

Comorbid medical conditions such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour.

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

Titration Studies for Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Therapy

APAP titration, unattended, meets the definition of medical necessity when ALL of the following criteria are met (A&B):

A. Member has been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea:

1. Results of a PSG or HSAT indicate Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) or Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) or Respiratory Event Index (REI) measured on HSAT of greater than or equal to15 events per hour OR

2. AHI or RDI or REI measured on HSAT of greater than or equal to5 but less than 15, with clinical evidence of one of the following conditions:

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Impaired cognition

Mood disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety)

Insomnia

Hypertension

Ischemic heart disease

History of stroke.

B. Absence of comorbid condition or concomitant secondary sleep disorders that could impact the technical quality or sensitivity of the APAP in adjusting pressure to meet member’s needs:

Comorbid medical conditions, which would degrade APAP, such as:

Moderate to severe COPD or asthma, as diagnosed on pulmonary function studies (PFTs)

Moderate to severe congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV) or LVEF less than or equal to 45%

Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary artery pressure greater than 40 mm Hg

Neuromuscular/neurodegenerative disorder causing restrictive lung disease, such as: severe kyphoscoliosis, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, polymyositis, and Guillian Barre syndrome

Acute, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia(s) supported by clinical documentation.

Secondary concomitant or associated sleep disorders which would degrade APAP, such as:

Previously diagnosed periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), defined as greater than or equal to 15 periodic limb movements per hour resulting in arousal when the arousals are not associated with respiratory events

Complex parasomnias, with potentially injurious, disruptive or violent behavior, such as REM Behavior Disorder or sleep walking

Narcolepsy, or narcolepsy-related symptoms, after obstructive sleep apnea has been evaluated and effectively treated as documented by the member’s objective adherence to therapy (PAP download)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, defined as pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg and pO2 less than 60 mm Hg on arterial blood gas

Central sleep apnea or treatment-emergent sleep apnea, defined as central apneas/ hypopneas greater than 50% of the total apneas/hypopneas and central apneas/hypopneas greater than or equal to 5 times per hour

Nocturnal seizures which are acute and/or not effectively controlled and occurring concomitantly with other sleep disorders.

Experimental or Investigational

The following diagnostic tests are considered experimental or investigational for members with symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea:

Actigraphy testing when used alone is not a validated method of diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea

Acoustic pharyngometry, or SNAP testing with fewer than 3 channels

Cephalographic x-rays for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (Lateral cephalographic x-rays and orthopantograms may be medically necessary for evaluating members for oral appliances; lateral cephalographic x-rays may also be necessary to evaluate members for obstructive sleep apnea surgery)

X-rays of the temporomandibular joint or sella turcica

Laryngeal function studies

Sonography

Static charge sensitive bed

Tomographic x-ray

A limited daytime sleep study sometimes used for PAP desensitization and acclimatization (e.g. PAP-Nap” study).

In-facility polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) is considered experimental or investigational (in children or adults) for the following indications:

Chronic lung disease in the absence of symptoms of a sleep disorder

Circadian rhythm disorders

Transient or chronic insomnia

Seizures in the absence of symptoms of a sleep disorder

Depression or other psychiatric disorders

Snoring without excessive daytime sleepiness.

Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) in pediatric members (younger than age 18 years) is not FDA-approved and is therefore considered experimental or investigational.

The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

BILLING/CODING INFORMATION:

CPT Coding:

95782

Polysomnography; younger than 6 years, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

95783

Polysomnography; younger than 6 years, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, with initiation of continuous positive airway pressure therapy or bi-level ventilation, attended by a technologist

95800

Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory analysis(e.g., by airflow or peripheral arterial tone), and sleep time

95801

Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; minimum of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory analysis (e.g., by airflow or peripheral arterial tone)

95803

Actigraphy testing, recording, analysis, interpretation, and report (minimum of 72 hours to 14 consecutive days of recording)

95805

Multiple sleep latency or maintenance of wakefulness testing, recording, analysis and interpretation of physiological measurements of sleep during multiple trials to assess sleepiness

95806

Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording of, heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort (eg, thoracoabdominal movement)

95807

Sleep study, simultaneous recording of ventilation, respiratory effort, ECG or heart rate, and oxygen saturation, attended by a technologist

95808

Polysomnography; any age, sleep staging with 1 – 3 additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

95810

Polysomnography; age 6 years or older, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

95811

Polysomnography; age 6 or older, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, with initiation of continuous positive airway pressure therapy or bi-level ventilation, attended by technologist

HCPCS Coding:

G0398

Home sleep study test (HST) with type II portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 7 channels: EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG/heart rate, airflow, respiratory effort and oxygen saturation

G0399

Home sleep test (HST) with type III portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 4 channels: 2 respiratory movement/airflow, 1 ECG/heart rate and 1 oxygen

G0400

Home sleep test (HST) with type IV portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 3 channels

REIMBURSEMENT INFORMATION:

Reimbursement for Sleep Testing (95782, 95783, 95800, 95801, 95806, 95807, 95808, 95810, 95811, G0398, G0399, and G0399) is limited to two (2) in 12 months.

Reimbursement for multiple sleep latency (95805) is limited to one (1) day of testing in 12 months.

NOTE: Services in excess of the above limitations are subject to medical review of documentation that supports medical necessity. The following information is required documentation to support medical necessity: physician history and physical, physician procedure note, treatment plan, plan of treatment, electroencephalogram study, and polysomnography (sleep) study.

LOINC Codes:

Documentation Table

LOINC Codes

LOINC

Time Frame

Modifier Code

LOINC Time Frame Modifier Codes Narrative

Physician history and physical

28626-0

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Physician procedure note

18733-6

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Neuromuscular electrophysiology studies ( i.e., electro – encephalogram study and polysomnography (sleep) study)

27897-8

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Treatment plan, plan of treatment

18776-5

18805-2

Include all data of the selected type that represents observations made six months or fewer before starting date of service for the claim.

Procedure 95805 is allowed in addition to (95807, 95808, 95810, or 95811). One (1) repeat (95805) may be covered if:

Reimbursement for an overnight stay in an Independent Sleep Center, Sleep Disorder Clinic, or outpatient hospital setting is included in the allowance of the sleep test (95805, 95807, 95808, 95810, and 95811.)

Reimbursement for the following supplies is included in the sleep testing procedure (95805, 95807, 95808, 95810 and 95811):

Facility-based polysomnography is always performed the night before the MSLT and may be performed the night before the MWT, at the discretion of the rendering provider. Polysomnography involves an overnight recording of data, and the member is monitored throughout the night. The MSLT is performed to assess sleepiness during the member’s typical wake period. The MWT is performed to assess wakefulness during the member’s typical wake period.

PROGRAM EXCEPTIONS:

Federal Employee Plan (FEP): FEP is excluded from the National Imaging Associates (NIA) review; follow FEP guidelines.

State Account Organization (SAO): Follow SAO guidelines.

Medicare Advantage products

The following National Coverage Determination (NCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy For Obstructive Sleep Apnea (240.4) and Sleep Testing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) (240.4.1) located at cms.gov.

The following Local Coverage Determination (LCD) was reviewed on the last guideline reviewed date: Polysomnography and Sleep Testing (L33405) located at fcso.com.

DEFINITIONS:

Actigraphy: measures physical activity, typically via a wrist-worn movement sensor, employed to estimate sleep and wakefulness based on relative levels of physical inactivity and activity.

Apnea: cessation of airflow for at least ten (10) seconds.

Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI): the total number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. AHI is an index of severity of obstructive sleep apnea. AHI is calculated by dividing the number of apneas plus the number of hypopneas by the number of hours of sleep.

If the AHI is calculated based on less than 2 hours of continuous recorded sleep, the total number of recorded events used to calculate the AHI must be at least the number of events that would have been required in a 2-hour period (i.e., greater than or equal to 10 events).

Brief Resolved Unexplained Event (BRUE): an event occurring in an infant younger than 1 year when the observer reports a sudden, brief, and now resolved episode of ≥1 of the following: cyanosis or pallor; (2) absent, decreased, or irregular breathing; (3) marked change in tone (hyper or hypotonia); and (4) altered level of responsiveness. A BRUE is diagnosed only when there is no explanation for a qualifying event after conducting an appropriate history and physical examination

Cataplexy: sudden attacks of muscular weakness and hypotonia triggered by an emotional stimulus such as laughter, anger, or fear.

Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): the repeated cessation of breathing caused by the temporary signal loss from the brain sent to the breathing muscles. CSA is most often seen in patients with neurologic disorders, congestive heart failure and in patients who take certain medications (e.g., opiates, benzodiazepines).

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations: a type of central sleep apnea seen in patients with congestive heart failure.

Electroencephalography (EEG): evaluates brain waves during different stages of sleep.

Electrocardiography (EKG/ECG): measures electrical rhythm of the heart.

Electromyography (EMG): evaluates muscle movements during sleep.

Electrooculography (EOG): evaluates eye movement during dream (REM) sleep.

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Score greater than or equal to 10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.

Home Sleep Apnea Test (HSAT): also known as portable or unattended sleep test. HAST is conducted in the home setting or in a facility outside of the sleep laboratory. This test is unattended by a sleep technologist and may provide many of the same measurements as an in-lab sleep study, such as brain waves, heart rate, breathing, sleep position and oxygen saturation. This test is used to diagnose OSA in patients without comorbid conditions.

Hypersomnolence: excessive sleepiness during the typical period of wakefulness.

Hypnogogic hallucinations: vivid dream-like experiences, occurring at sleep onset.

Hypopnea: an abnormal respiratory event lasting at least ten seconds with at least 30% reduction in thoracoabdominal movement or airflow as compared to baseline, and with at least a 4% oxygen desaturation.

Insomnia: an inability to sleep; abnormal wakefulness which may be characterized as difficulty falling asleep or sustanined awakenings from sleep.

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT): measures sleep latency when the patient is instructed to attempt to remain awake in an unstimulated environment. MWT measures wakefulness during a person’s typical wake period. It is used to assess a person’s response to therapy (wakefulness) when treatment for a sleep disorder (e.g., OSA, PLMD, narcolepsy, etc.) has been undertaken (e.g., PAP, pharmacotherapies, etc.).

Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): measures how quickly the patient falls asleep when instructed to relax in a quiet and dimly lit room. The MSLT is performed to assess pathologic sleepiness during the patient’s typical wake period.

Myoclonia: abnormal contraction of muscles which can prevent restful sleep.

Narcolepsy: recurrent, uncontrollable, episodes of sleep, often associated with hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and cataplexy. Patients experience profound daytime sleepiness.

Nocturnal: pertaining to, occurring at, or active at night.

O2 Saturation: percentage of oxygen carried by the blood.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): characterized by repetitive apneas and/or hypopneas during sleep, caused by complete or partial collapse of pharyngeal airway during sleep. In adults, an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) greater than or equal to 5 but less than 15 is considered mild OSA. AHI greater than or equal to 15 but less than 30 is considered moderate OSA. AHI greater than or equal to 30 is considered severe OSA. In pediatric patients, an AHI greater than or equal to 1 is considered abnormal.

PAP-NAP: limited sleep study during which sleep technologists provide behavioral coaching and PAP therapy desensitization to sleep patients

Parasomnia: abnormal sleep behavior during sleep, such as sleepwalking, sleep talking, sleep eating sleep terrors, dream enactment.

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD): characterized by an involuntary, repetitive limb movement that may occur during sleep and usually involve the legs. This causes frequent arousals from sleep and often results in excessive daytime sleepiness.

Polysomnography: test performed in the sleep laboratory to evaluate the parameters of sleep.

REM Behavior Disorder (RBD): parasomnia occurring in REM sleep that primarily afflicts men of middle age or older; with a history of cerebrovascular disease. Presenting symptoms include violent behavior during sleep and dream enactment, typically with memory of the event.

Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI): number of apneas + hypopneas + respiratory-related events during the sleep test divided by the total number of hours slept.

Respiratory-Event Index (REI); a measurement of sleep disordered breathing on home sleep apnea testing defined as number of apneas + hypopneas during the sleep test divided by the total sleep or recording time reported in hours. Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): an unpleasant discomfort typically inside the calves when sitting or lying down, especially just before sleep. This produces an irresistible urge to move the legs and may interfere with the ability to fall asleep. Other extremities or other body parts may also be affected.

Seizure: a paroxysmal event resulting from a sudden excessive discharge of the neurons of the cerebral cortex. Lack of sleep facilitates epileptic activity and seizures.

Sleep paralysis: experience of being awake but unable to move and lasting a few seconds. By itself, sleep paralysis may be a normal phenomenon. However, when present with other symptoms, it may be a part of the symptomatology of narcolepsy.

Sleep terrors: similar to nightmares, but occurring in non-REM sleep. The patientmay inact the nightmare without memory of the event.

Snoring: noisy breathing occuring during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.

Split-Night Study: the initial diagnostic portion of the polysomnography followed by PAP titration therapy occurring during the same sleep test.

Treatment-Emergent Central Sleep Apnea: previously known as complex sleep apnea; persistence or emergence of central apneas and hypopneas during the initiation of PAP therapy without a backup respiratory rate for OSA, despite significant resolution of obstructive respiratory events.

Type I Sleep Study Devices: for sleep studies performed attended in a sleep laboratory. Minimum requirements include recording of EEG, EOG, chin EMG, anterior tibialis EMG, ECG, airflow, respiratory effort and oxygen saturation. Body position is documented. The sleep technologist is in attendance during Type I sleep studies

Type II Sleep Study Devices: for sleep studies performed unattended outside of a sleep lab facility. Type II devices are portable devices that have a minimum of 7 channels (e.g., EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG or heart rate, airflow, respiratory effort, and oxygen saturation and monitor sleep staging). A sleep technologist is not in attendance during Type II studies.

Type III Sleep Study Devices: for sleep studies performed unattended outside of a sleep laboratory facility. Type III devices are portable devices that monitor and record a minimum of four channels and must record airflow, heart rate or ECG, and oxygen saturation. The sleep technologist is not in attendance during Type III studies.

Type IV Sleep Study Devices: for sleep studies performed unattended outside a sleep laboratory. Type IV devices are portable devices that monitor and record a minimum of three channles. Other measurements may include oximetry and heart rate. The technolgist is not in attendance during Type IV sleep studies.

RELATED GUIDELINES:

Medical and Surgical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) – LAUP, UPPP, Radiofrequency Volume Reduction, 02-40000-16
Positive Airway Pressure Devices, 09-E0000-21

OTHER:

REFERENCES:

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  56. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 501(k) approval (K080321) for SNAP Model 7 (Type III device), May 23, 2008.
  57. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 501(k) approval (K984169) for Digi-Snap (Type IV device), May 26, 1999.
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COMMITTEE APPROVAL:

This Medical Coverage Guideline (MCG) was approved by the Florida Blue Medical Policy & Coverage Committee on 12/01/16.

GUIDELINE UPDATE INFORMATION:

12/31/00

New Medical Coverage Guideline.

11/15/01

Reformatted and revised.

01/01/03

HCPCS coding update.

02/15/03

Review and revision of guideline consisting of clarification of coverage criteria for sleep testing.

02/15/04

Review and revision of guideline; consisting of updated references and addition of covered ICD-9 codes.

11/15/04

Addition of ICD-9 code 780.54 as covered diagnosis.

02/15/05

Addition of reimbursement language for sleep study supplies.

09/15/07

Review and revision of guideline consisting of updated references and reformatted guideline.

05/01/08

HCPCS coding update, added G0398, G0399 and G0400.

09/15/08

Review and revision of guideline consisting of updated references.

04/15/09

Revision of Program Exception section for Medicare, relating to home sleep testing.

11/15/09

Scheduled review; position statement unchanged; added accreditation information for sleep study centers; added new 01/01/10 codes; definitions revised; references updated.

04/15/10

Revision of statement regarding place of service.

09/15/10

Revision to guideline; consisting of formatting changes.

01/01/11

Annual HCPCS coding update; deleted 0203T and 0204T; added 95800 and 95801.

04/15/11

Annual review. Position Statement revised to include criteria for home sleep testing. Added position statement regarding repeat sleep studies and SNAP test. Revision of Reimbursement section. Updated definition section. Updated references. Formatting changes.

07/01/11

Revision; formatting changes.

08/15/11

Revision of position statement regarding portable sleep testing devices; formatting changes.

01/01/13

Revision to define “excessive daytime sleepiness”; add 95782 and 95783; revise 95808, 95810, and 95811; update references.

01/01/14

Revision and reformatting of position statement; Program Exceptions section updated; references updated.

06/26/14

Revision to add clarification regarding SNAP testing devices; formatting changes.

01/01/15

Annual review. Position statements updated; references updated; formatting changes.

09/06/16

Page format changes.

12/15/16

Revision; description, position statements, and references updated.

Date Printed: June 23, 2017: 11:38 AM